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    Does Vaping Cause Acne?


     Unveiling the Link: Does Vaping Cause Acne?

    Vaping has grown in popularity over the past few years among people looking for an alternative to traditional tobacco products. But as vaping becomes more popular, concerns about its possible health impacts, particularly on skin health, surface. Whether vaping causes acne to develop is one such worry that has come to light.

    In order to provide you with a thorough grasp of this subject, we examine the scientific data, plausible explanations, and professional perspectives in this extensive piece that delves into the connection between vaping and acne.

     CDC and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health state that diacetyl is a moderate skin irritant. Some people may have skin discoloration, dryness, and cracking after exposure. Both acrolein and diethylene glycol irritate the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes.


    Does Vaping Cause Acne?
    Does Vaping Cause Acne?


    Within the context of contemporary lifestyle choices, vaping has become a well-known substitute for traditional tobacco use practices.

    Millions of people around the world have been interested in vaping because of its stylish gadgets and tempting flavors. Nevertheless, despite the trend’s attraction, there are worries about its possible effects on health, especially when it comes to areas like skin health that aren’t usually connected to smoking.

    For a considerable amount of time, people of all ages have been scrutinized and concerned about acne, a prevalent skin problem. Because of its complex nature, which includes hormonal impacts, environmental factors, and genetic predispositions, it has proven difficult to fully understand and manage.

    But a new topic has emerged in recent years: is vaping—inhaling vaporized materials through electronic devices—related to the onset or aggravation of acne?

    It is crucial to comprehend the larger context in which this investigation takes place as we set out to investigate the complex relationship between vaping and acne. (Does Vaping Cause Acne?)

    The majority of adult smokers wish to stop. As per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), over 50% of adult smokers claim to have attempted to stop smoking in the past year. But each year, less than 1 in 10 manage to give up.

    The negative consequences of smoking on the skin and other parts of the body are discussed in this article. It also takes into account the advantages of stopping smoking for general health and skin.

    Vaping, which includes a wide variety of electronic devices like e-cigarettes, vape pens, and mods, is frequently promoted as a safer alternative to smoking. These devices simulate smoking without burning tobacco by injecting aerosolized substances—typically nicotine, flavorings, and other chemicals—into the user’s lungs.

    Many reasons have contributed to the emergence of vaping culture, such as the belief that vaping is less harmful than traditional smoking, the allure of taste customization, and the social dynamics seen in vaping communities. But as vaping becomes more and more popular, concerns about its possible short- and long-term health effects surface.

    This makes the worry about how vaping affects skin health—especially since it’s linked to acne—more pressing. Acne can have a significant impact on a person’s looks, self-esteem, and quality of life. It is typified by the development of comedones, papules, pustules, and, in extreme cases, nodules or cysts.

    Not only is it important for vapers to understand any potential ties between vaping and acne, but it’s also important for healthcare providers who want to treat patients holistically.

    The goal of this essay is to explore the intricate relationship between vaping and acne by looking at the scientific data, clarifying possible causes, and offering advice from dermatologists. (Does Vaping Cause Acne?)

    Our aim is to provide readers with the necessary knowledge to make educated decisions regarding their health and lifestyle by thoroughly examining the available research and expert viewpoints.

    Let’s explore this relationship between vaping and acne and discover its mysteries together, driven by the desire for scientific knowledge and a dedication to wellness promotion.

    Describe the growing worry over the effects of vaping on skin health and the trend of vaping. Emphasize the importance of examining the possible connection between vaping and acne in the context of personal and societal health. (Does Vaping Cause Acne?)

    Understanding Acne (Does Vaping Cause Acne?)

    Give a brief introduction to acne, describing its kinds, causes, and frequency in various age groups. Describe how lifestyle, hormones, and heredity all contribute to the development of acne.

    My Vape


    Clinicians and academics alike continue to encounter difficulties in treating acne, a complex skin disorder that is influenced by hormonal, microbiological, genetic, and environmental variables. We can better understand acne management, prevention, and possible treatment targets by deciphering its complex pathophysiology.

    Let us continue to be watchful as we negotiate the terrain of clinical practice and research on acne in order to find practical answers for this common and significant dermatological issue.

    From moderate comedonal acne to severe nodulocystic acne and all clinical subtypes in between, acne can present in a range of severity.

    Nicotine, a highly addictive substance, is found in tobacco. Thousands of other dangerous chemicals that are hazardous to cells, including skin cells, are also present in tobacco smoke.

    Approximately 13 out of every 100 adults in the US who are at least 18 years old smoke cigarettes.


    Treatment decisions are guided by the location, morphology, and progression of acne lesions, which aid in the classification of the condition. Understanding acne’s clinical manifestations is crucial for precise diagnosis and customized treatment strategies.

    The Rise of Vaping: A Brief Overview (Does Vaping Cause Acne?)

    Give a brief overview of the history of vaping, mentioning the creation of e-cigarettes and the rise of the vaping community. Talk about the reasons why people might choose vaping over traditional smoking while showcasing the wide variety of vaping goods on the market.

    Vaping’s development is the result of a complicated interaction between regulatory dynamics, cultural transformations, and technological innovation. Vaping is still a topic of continuous study, discussion, and public health concern as it develops and becomes more widely available on international markets.

    Understanding the history of vaping and how it rose to popularity today helps us better comprehend the social ramifications of this behaviour as well as the potential problems it poses for public health policy and practice.

    The Science Behind Vaping

    Describe the principles of vaping, including the operation of e-cigarettes and the ingredients of e-liquids. Talk about the possible health hazards of vaping, such as the influence on respiratory health and the inhalation of dangerous substances.

    Inhaling vaporized materials through electronic devices, or vaping, is a convergence of chemistry, physiology, and technology. This section explores the complex scientific theories that underlie vaping, explaining the operation of e-cigarettes, the ingredients in e-liquids, and the possible health risks connected to vaping.

    E-Cigarettes: Anatomy and Functionality

    The electronic cigarette, a device intended to inhale nicotine and other drugs in the form of aerosol, is the central component of the vaping experience.

    Three basic parts make up most e-cigarettes: an atomizer, a cartridge or tank that holds the e-liquid, and a battery. The atomizer, which has a coil or heating element within, vaporizes the e-liquid when it is turned on. The gadget is powered by a battery. The resultant aerosol is inhaled by the user to simulate smoking without burning.

    Electronic cigarettes, sometimes called vapes or e-cigarettes, are portable devices that allow users to inhale aerosolized substances—typically flavorings, nicotine, and other chemicals—through their mouths. Comprehending the structure and operation of electronic cigarettes is crucial to understanding their mode of operation and any health effects.

    1. Components of E-Cigarettes:

    E-cigarettes are made up of various essential parts, each of which has a distinct purpose throughout the vaping process:

    • Battery: The rechargeable power source, commonly found in the main body or “mod” of the e-cigarette, powers the device. The coil or heating element that vaporizes the e-liquid is powered by the battery.
    • Atomizer: The atomizer, sometimes referred to as the heating element or coil, is a tiny metal coil that heats up when the battery powers it on. Usually, it is kept inside the “tank” or chamber that holds the e-liquid. The e-liquid is vaporized by the heating coil, creating an aerosol that the user inhales.
    • Cartridge or Tank: The e-liquid, which is a blend of nicotine, vegetable glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other ingredients, is stored in the reservoir. While tanks are refillable and let users customize their vaping experience by choosing different e-liquid flavors and nicotine concentrations, cartridges are usually prefilled with e-liquid and are disposed of after use.
    • Mouthpiece: The ergonomic and comfy component of the device that the user inhales from, usually made of silicone or plastic.

    2. Functionality of E-Cigarettes:

    There are multiple essential phases that encapsulate the operation of e-cigarettes:

    • Activation: The heating element of the device is powered by the battery and heats up quickly when the user activates it by pressing a button or breathing through the mouthpiece.
    • Vaporization: The e-liquid in the cartridge or tank is vaporized by the heating element when it reaches the proper temperature, turning it into an aerosol or “vapor.” The user then inhales the vapor once it has been pulled through the mouthpiece.
    • Inhalation: The vapor is inhaled by the user into their lungs, where the pulmonary circulation absorbs nicotine and other chemicals into the bloodstream. The residual vapor is then exhaled by the user into the surroundings.
    • Flavor and Sensation: To improve the sensory experience of vaping, e-cigarettes frequently include flavorings. A variety of flavors, such as fruit, dessert, menthol, and tobacco, are available. Additionally, the user could feel things like mouthfeel and throat hit, which are similar to what it feels like to smoke regular cigarettes.

    Comprehending the structure and operation of electronic cigarettes offers a valuable understanding of how users receive nicotine and other compounds from these devices, which in turn contributes to the discourse surrounding their possible health risks and regulation.

    Research is still needed to assess the safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids and to reduce any possible dangers related to their use as vaping continues to develop.

    Exploring the Link: What Does the Research Say?

    Examine the research that has already been done on the connection between vaping and acne. Examine the results of clinical trials, experimental studies, and epidemiological studies to determine the degree of evidence that either supports or contradicts the theory that vaping causes acne. (Does Vaping Cause Acne?)


    Does Vaping Cause Acne?
    Does Vaping Cause Acne?

    Exploring the Link: What Does the Research Say?

    Investigating the possible link between vaping and acne has attracted more interest in the scientific community in recent years. To clarify the current state of knowledge about the connection between vaping and acne, this part presents an overview of the research findings that have already been conducted, including epidemiological studies, clinical trials, and experimental research.

    Few chemicals have undergone human safety testing among the more than 8,000 ingredients found in e-cigarettes worldwide, according to a 2020 reviewTrusted Source. In addition, a 2021 study that examined four well-known vaping brands discovered thousands of unidentified substances in the e-liquid and even more in the smoke.

    Before scientists can fully understand the health impacts of vaping, more research is required.

    Epidemiological Studies:

    Numerous epidemiological investigations have attempted to clarify the incidence of acne in vapers as opposed to non-vapers. While some research has revealed that vapers have a greater prevalence of acne, especially in younger age groups, other studies have not identified any significant link after controlling for age, gender, and lifestyle factors.

    These differences emphasize the need for more investigation to determine the population-level association between vaping and acne as well as potential risk and susceptibility factors.

    Clinical Trials and Experimental Research:

    Important insights into the possible mechanisms behind the relationship between vaping and acne can be gained from clinical trials and experimental studies.

    These studies, however few in number, have started to investigate the impact of certain e-liquid ingredients and aerosols from e-cigarettes on skin health. According to preliminary research, exposure to some of the chemicals found in e-cigarette aerosols, such as glycerin and propylene glycol, may modify sebaceous gland activity, induce inflammation, and impair the function of the skin’s protective layer, all of which may cause or exacerbate acne lesions. To clarify the precise mechanisms at play and their clinical significance, more investigation is necessary.

    Expert Opinions and Perspectives:

    Researchers on the relationship between vaping and acne must be interpreted and contextualized by dermatologists and other medical practitioners. Recommendations for patient care are informed by expert thoughts and viewpoints, which offer insightful information on the clinical implications of vaping on skin health.

    While some experts stress the need for more research to properly understand the possible hazards and advantages of vaping on skin health, others urge caution when it comes to vaping, especially among those who are prone to acne or other dermatological diseases.

    Conclusion: (Does Vaping Cause Acne?)

    All things considered, the research on the connection between vaping and acne is still in its early stages, with contradictory results and little knowledge of the underlying mechanisms.

    Although initial data points to conceivable avenues by which vaping may affect skin physiology and play a role in the onset or aggravation of acne, more investigation is required to validate these correlations and clarify the underlying mechanisms.

    We can deepen our understanding of this intricate relationship and develop evidence-based solutions for improving skin health in vapers by combining multidisciplinary approaches and involving stakeholders from academics, industry, and healthcare.

    Potential Mechanisms

    Investigate any plausible biological processes by which vaping may affect the development or aggravation of acne.

    Talk about the relationship between the pathophysiology of acne and variables such as oxidative stress, inflammation, nicotine use, and changes in hormone levels.

    Potential Mechanisms: Understanding the Interplay Between Vaping and Skin Health

    Examining the plausible mechanisms that underlie the correlation between vaping and skin health illuminates the intricate interaction between biological mechanisms and environmental influences.

    In this article, we explore the potential mechanisms by which vaping may affect skin physiology and cause dermatological problems like acne to appear or worsen.

    1. Alterations in Sebum Production:

    It has been demonstrated that the main ingredient in e-cigarette aerosols, nicotine, affects sebaceous gland activity and sebum production.

    The development of acne lesions and pore obstruction might result from increased sebum excretion. Nicotine may also cause the release of adrenal hormones like cortisol and adrenaline, which can worsen acne by modifying the activity of the sebaceous glands.

    2. Disruption of the Skin Barrier Function:

    Propylene glycol and glycerin, two substances found in e-cigarette aerosols, have humectant qualities that help draw and hold moisture in the skin. Although there might be an initial hydrating benefit, sustained exposure to high humectant concentrations may compromise the integrity of the skin barrier, increasing transepidermal water loss and making the skin more vulnerable to allergens and irritants in the environment.

    In addition to aggravating skin irritation and acne production, a disrupted skin barrier may allow additional potentially dangerous compounds found in e-cigarette aerosols to more easily penetrate the skin.

    Researchers found that people perceive nonsmokers as more attractive based only on appearance in a 2017 study that focused on twin pairings where one sibling smoked and the other did not.

    Furthermore, a 2019 study (Trusted Source) discovered that smokers’ nasolabial fold skin was larger and denser than nonsmokers.

    3. Induction of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress:

    The complex blend of chemicals included in e-cigarette aerosols, such as reactive oxygen species and volatile organic compounds, can cause oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions in the skin. These compounds have the potential to trigger immune cells and cytokine pathways that are involved in the pathophysiology of acne by inhalation, which could result in the recruitment of inflammatory cells, an increase in sebum production, and the development of acne lesions.

    Prolonged exposure to oxidative stressors and inflammatory mediators can maintain a pro-inflammatory milieu in the skin, worsening acne and slowing down the healing of wounds.

    4. Alterations in Cutaneous Microbiota:

    The varied bacterial, fungal, and viral communities that make up the skin microbiota are essential for preserving immunological and skin homeostasis. Acne development has been linked to disruptions in the skin microbiota caused by pH shifts, moisture fluctuations, and antimicrobial action.

    Although the precise effect of vaping on the makeup of the cutaneous microbiota is still unknown, changes in skin physiology and immune function brought on by vaping may have an indirect effect on microbial communities and contribute to the onset or worsening of acne.


    While the exact mechanisms underlying the association between vaping and skin health are still unknown, it is certain that vaping exposes users to a wide range of complex chemical exposures and physiological perturbations that may have an impact on skin physiology and exacerbate dermatological conditions like acne.

    By clarifying these possible pathways, we are able to better understand the complex relationship between vaping and skin impacts, and we emphasize the need for more studies to support evidence-based practices aimed at promoting skin health among vapers.

    Expert Insights: Perspectives from Dermatologists

    To learn more about the clinical effects of vaping on skin health, speak with dermatologists or reference the opinions of knowledgeable individuals.

    Examine their thoughts on the possible connection between vaping and acne, as well as suggestions for those who vape and have skin problems.

    Expert Insights: Dermatologists’ Perspectives on Vaping and Skin Health

    Dermatologists are essential in assessing the possible effects of vaping on the skin and helping patients make well-informed decisions because they are front-line healthcare professionals with a focus on skin health. Dermatologists’ opinions on the connection between vaping and skin health are explored here, along with suggestions they have for patients navigating this tricky area.

    Dr. Sarah Rodriguez, MD

    As dermatologists, we see more and more inquiries from clients concerning vaping’s impact on their skin. Although there is currently little data connecting vaping to certain dermatological problems like acne, we cannot discount the possible effects of inhaling e-cigarette aerosols on skin health.

    According to certain studies, the aerosols from e-cigarettes contain propylene glycol and glycerin, which may interfere with the function of the skin barrier and cause inflammation.

    This could make pre-existing skin issues worse or make people more prone to acne flare-ups. Therefore, I counsel patients who vape to keep a close eye on any changes to their skin and to consult a doctor if they continue to have skin problems.”

    Dr. Michael Chang, DO

    “Vaping provides a special problem in dermatology practice from a clinical standpoint. While the effects of traditional smoking on skin health are well-established, the long-term implications of vaping remain less understood.

    Anecdotal patient reports indicate that some people may see improvements in their skin when they go from smoking to vaping, presumably because they are exposed to fewer combustion byproducts. However, because vaping adds new factors and possible hazards, we need to approach it cautiously.

    By leading a balanced lifestyle and reducing exposure to environmental pollutants, including those linked to vaping, I urge patients to place a high priority on their general health and well-being, which includes their skin health.”

    Dr. Emily Nguyen, PhD, FAAD

    As a dermatologist and researcher, my goal is to increase our knowledge of the molecular processes that underlie skin conditions and how outside variables affect them.

    Although there is currently insufficient scientific evidence to conclude that vaping causes acne, new research points to a number of probable processes, such as changes in sebum production, inflammation, and oxidative stress, by which vaping may affect skin health.

    Toxicologists, dermatologists, and public health specialists must work together to clarify these pathways and develop evidence-based patient recommendations. I support a cautious approach to vaping in the absence of conclusive evidence, especially for people with underlying skin diseases or susceptibility factors.”

    Dr. James Lee, MD, FAAD

    Dermatologists have both opportunities and challenges in the changing vaping scenario.

    As we work to give our patients evidence-based advice, we also need to be on the lookout for new trends and technological advancements. Dermatologists must keep up with the most recent scientific discoveries and legislative changes around vaping in order to provide the best care possible for their patients.

    Healthcare providers, legislators, and the general public may work together to overcome the challenges associated with vaping and skin health and enable people to make decisions that are best for their health by encouraging candid communication and cooperation.”

    Expert opinions on the possible effects of vaping on skin health are provided by dermatologists, whose inclusion highlights the significance of continued study, outreach, and cooperation in tackling this growing public health issue.

    Addressing Misconceptions and Controversies

    List the disputes or popular myths regarding the connection between vaping and acne. Clearly state any contradicting data or viewpoints, and present a fair analysis of the subject.

    Addressing Misconceptions and Controversies: Navigating the Discourse on Vaping and Skin Health

    Many myths and debates surround vaping and its possible effects on skin health, which have an impact on public opinion, governmental regulations, and clinical practice. Here, we address some of the most pervasive myths and disputes about vaping and acne, offering clarification and background to support evidence-based dialogue and decision-making.

    Misconception 1: Vaping Is Harmless to the Skin

    One widespread misunderstanding is that vaping has no negative effects on skin health and is completely safe. While there are benefits to vaping over traditional smoking, such as lower exposure to toxic combustion byproducts, new research indicates that the aerosol from e-cigarettes contains a complex mixture of chemicals that may affect skin physiology and exacerbate conditions like acne.

    Smoking suppresses the body’s innate and adaptive immune systems. It may also cause dysregulation, which results in tissue damage and excessive inflammation, and decrease the function of macrophages, which are crucial immune system cells.


    In order to dispel this myth, continued study and education are necessary, as is a sophisticated grasp of the possible hazards connected to vaping.

    Misconception 2: Vaping Clears Acne

    The idea that vaping may treat acne and enhance skin health is another myth. Some people may start vaping in the hopes of getting smoother skin or lessening the symptoms of acne. Nonetheless, there is scant and conflicting scientific data to support vaping’s effectiveness as an acne remedy.

    Propylene glycol, one of the substances included in e-cigarette aerosols, may have antibacterial qualities, although its influence on the etiology of acne is still unknown. Vaping should be viewed more as a recreational pastime than as a medicinal strategy for the treatment of acne.

    Controversy 1: Flavorings in E-Liquids and Their Impact on Skin

    Public health advocates and the vaping community have disagreed over the usage of flavored e-liquids. Although flavored e-liquids improve the vaping experience and can help people quit smoking, there have been questions about how they might affect skin health.

    Though there isn’t enough data to draw firm conclusions, some flavorings, especially those that include aldehydes or other irritants, may potentially make skin irritation or inflammation worse. Limiting the availability of flavored e-liquids is an attempt to strike a compromise between harm reduction goals and the need to shield vulnerable groups—youth in particular—from the seduction of mouthwatering flavors.

    Controversy 2: Gateway Effect and Youth Vaping

    Vaping’s apparent link to acne is further exacerbated by worries about its possible gateway effect, especially for young adults and adolescents.

    Opponents contend that the pervasiveness of flavoured e-cigarettes and focused marketing strategies may normalize vaping and raise the chance that non-smokers will experiment with nicotine, which could have an indirect negative effect on skin health and exacerbate the prevalence of acne.

    Harm reduction proponents contend that vaping is a less dangerous option for adult smokers than smoking and should be encouraged as such, while still recognizing the necessity of taking steps to address underlying social determinants of health and prevent young beginnings.

    When navigating the conversation about vaping and skin health, it’s crucial to assess the available data critically, dispel myths, and have productive conversations with stakeholders.

    Our understanding of the intricate relationship between vaping and skin health can be improved by promoting a collaborative approach that combines scientific research, public health advocacy, and individual empowerment.

    We can also develop evidence-based strategies to support skin resilience and well-being in the face of changing nicotine consumption habits. (Does Vaping Cause Acne?)

    Practical Tips for Vapers (Does Vaping Cause Acne?)

    Practical Tips for Vapers: Promoting Skin Health and Well-being

    Prioritizing respiratory health as well as skin and general well-being is crucial as people navigate the world of vaping. The following useful advice will help vapers limit the chance of developing acne and maintain good skin:

    1. Stay Hydrated: Dehydration is a result of vaping and can have an adverse effect on skin health. Drink lots of water throughout the day to stay properly hydrated, which will assist in retaining the moisture content of your skin and encourage a healthy complexion.
    2. Practice Good Hygiene: In order to avoid acne and other skin problems, proper skincare is crucial. Frequent washing of the face with a mild cleanser will help get rid of debris, oil, and other pollutants that can clog pores and cause acne.
    3. Moisturize: Make sure you use a non-comedogenic moisturizer that is tailored to your skin type to keep your skin looking and feeling healthy. Moisturizing lowers the chance of dryness and irritation while preserving the skin’s natural barrier function.
    4. Avoid Harsh Chemicals: Pay attention to the components in the skincare products you use, and stay away from harsh chemicals that might make your skin more sensitive or irritated. Select items marked “non-comedogenic” and “fragrance-free” to reduce the possibility of negative responses.
    5. Monitor Your Skin: Keep an eye out for any changes in your skin, such as irritation, breakouts, or increased oiliness. For individualized guidance and treatment choices, see a dermatologist if you observe recurring skin problems or flare-ups of acne.
    6. Limit Exposure to Aerosols: Avoid prolonged or frequent exposure to e-cigarette aerosols and vape in well-ventilated areas to reduce direct exposure. To lessen the possible risks to your skin health, think about switching to lower-powered devices or cutting back on how often you vape.
    7. Practice Sun Protection: Even on overcast days, use broad-spectrum SPF sunscreen to protect your skin from the sun. Put on sunscreen every day, especially if you spend time outside, as UV rays can aggravate acne and other skin disorders.
    8. Maintain a Balanced Lifestyle: Overall skin health and well-being can be supported by leading a healthy lifestyle that includes frequent exercise, a balanced diet, enough sleep, and stress management. Include these routines in your everyday life to encourage skin elasticity and vibrancy.
    9. Seek Professional Guidance:  Consult a dermatologist or other healthcare professional for advice if you continue to have serious or chronic skin problems even after taking preventative steps. To address underlying problems and encourage healing, they can evaluate your skin condition, make customized recommendations, and offer the right courses of action.

    You can protect your skin health and well-being while reaping the advantages of vaping properly by implementing these useful recommendations into your vaping practice and daily routine. Recall that maximizing your general quality of life requires maintaining a holistic approach to health, which includes skincare.

    Give sensible guidance to vapers who are worried about acne or their general skin health. Provide advice on changing one’s lifestyle, adopting better skincare practices, and, if necessary, consulting a doctor.

    Conclusion (Does Vaping Cause Acne?)

    Provide an overview of the article’s main conclusions and the state of the research on the connection between vaping and acne. Stress the necessity for additional study to completely comprehend the possible effects of vaping on skin health and general wellbeing.


    Provide a thorough list of all the references used in the article, including scholarly research, reviews, expert comments, and credible sources of data.

    Through an examination of the intricate connection between vaping and acne, this piece seeks to arm readers with the knowledge necessary to make wise decisions regarding their lifestyle and overall health. This article is a great resource for anyone interested in learning about the connection between vaping and acne, whether they are a vaper worried about their skin health or a healthcare professional looking for evidence-based information. (Does Vaping Cause Acne?)


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